Speed of Sound - The Ultimate Speed of Sound List
The speed of sound generally varies based on two parameters. The temperature and density of the medium.
How temperature affects the speed of sound?
Heat = more energy. The more energy mediums have the more active the particles are inside. You can see this easily when you boil water. There is so much energy that the water starts turning into vapour. So the more these particles are bouncing around the better they are at transferring sound wave energy.
How density affects the speed of sound?
Now you will soon see from that list below that density plays a big role in how efficient the medium is at transferring sound energy. The more particles = short times to collide. Just like newtons cradle below you can see how the energy is transferred very efficiently leaving the middle balls (particles in this example) in the same place.
So now you know what effects the speed of sound let's take a look at the big list below.
Now these haven't been conducted by me and should be taken as a general estimate.
Speed of Sound in Liquids
Distilled water = 1489 m/sec
Seawater = 1531 m/sec (higher because it is denser)
Glycerol = 1904 m/sec
Mercury = 1450 m/sec
Kerosene = 1324 m/sec
Methyl Alcohol = 1143 m/sec
Carbon Tetrachloride = 926 m/sec
Speed of Sound in Wood
Ash, along the fiber = 4670 m/sec
Ash, across the rings = 1390 m/sec
Beech, along the fiber = 3340 m/sec
Elm, along the fiber = 4120 m/sec
Maple, along the fiber = 4110 m/sec
Oak, along the fiber = 3950 m/sec
Hardwood = 3962 m/sec
Speed of Sound in Gas
Hydrogen (O°C) = 1286 m/sec
Helium (O°C) = 972 m/sec
Air (20°C) = 343 m/sec
Air (0°C) = 331 m/sec
Speed of Sound in Solids
Diamond = 12,000 m/sec
Pyrex Glass = 5640 m/sec
Iron = 5130 m/sec
Aluminium = 5100 m/sec
Beryllium = 12890 m/sec
Brass = 4700 m/sec
Brick = 4176 m/sec
Concrete = 3200 - 3600 m/sec
Copper = 3560 - 4600 m/sec
Cork = 366 - 518 m/sec
Glass = 3962 m/sec
Gold = 3240 m/sec
Granite = 5950 m/sec
Lead = 1158 m/sec
Lucite = 2680 m/sec
Rubber = 40 - 150 m/sec
Silver = 3650 m/sec
Steel = 6100 m/sec
Stainless Steel = 5790 m/sec
Titanium = 6070 m/sec
Take a look below for more interesting articles on sound. Thanks for reading from soundrolling.com